top of page



Criminal Law Book


Criminal law definition states that it protects society’s interpretation of right and wrong and deems these acts/ crimes as unlawful, which are created to protect society as a whole, individual interests and certain property rights. Any crime is regarded as a ‘public wrong’, and the Crown is charged with the responsibility of protecting the moral foundation of society.

Criminal Law vs Civil Law

Civil law deals with conflicts involving people, businesses, or both, in which the victim is given compensation. Examples of civil law cases include landlord-tenant issues, divorces, custody battles, property disputes, and personal injuries. A private party brought the lawsuit.


Criminal law is the body of law that governs crime and the appropriate sanctions for committing criminal offences. Theft, assault, robbery, trafficking in controlled substances, murder, and other offences are criminal law examples. The government or state filed the lawsuit.


Criminal law is one of the seven core disciplines that the Law Society and Bar Council consider necessary for a qualifying law degree. Criminal law is also the bedrock upon which law and order are built. As a law student, passing this topic is critical because you will need this knowledge to defend persons facing the loss of their liberty as a professional criminal lawyer. Criminal Law is a foundation for other disciplines and is required to study subjects such as Public and Administrative, Constitutional, Jurisprudence, legal theory, Human Rights, EU, and International law.


Other specialised areas include Corporate Homicide, Criminal Litigation, and Sentencing and Punishment Law. The issue that many law students have when studying Criminal Law is a lack of knowledge. There is so much reading to be done and so little time. If you exclude any content or a case, you get no knowledge.

Read Criminal Law Book


General Principle: The jury is not entitled to find the necessary intention unless death or serious bodily harm was an obvious conclusion to the defendant’s act.

R v Woollin [1998] 4 All ER 103, HL

Facts: A man lost his temper with his three-month-old son and threw the child onto a hard surface, causing head injuries from which the child died. The Defendant was charged with murder and the judge directed the jury, largely in accordance with the Nedrick guidelines, that they might infer the necessary intention if they were satisfied that the Defendant realised there was "a substantial risk" of serious injury.


Ratio: The House of Lords said this would enlarge the scope of murder and blur the distinction between that and manslaughter. The jury, said Lord Steyn, should be directed that they are not entitled to find the necessary intention unless they feel sure that death or serious bodily harm was a virtual certainty - barring some unforeseen intervention - as a result of the defendant's actions and that the defendant realised such was the case, but should be reminded that the decision is one for them on a consideration of all the evidence.


Application: The House of Lords accepted the appeal of the Defendant. The Courts, by leaving the direction on oblique intention in the negative and thus giving juries some leeway to avoid convicting, have allowed juries to make moral judgments in appropriate circumstances.

Criminal Law FAQs

What Is Meant By International Criminal Law?

International criminal law is a corpus of public international law created to outlaw specific types of behaviour that are frequently considered significant atrocities and to hold those who commit such behaviour criminally responsible for their actions.

What Are The Types Of Criminal Law?

  • Personal Crimes: Crimes against a person that has a direct physical or psychological impact on them are referred to be personal crimes. These offences include murder, aggravated assault, and rape. Robbery is classified as a crime against property, but because it results in the victim's bodily and mental suffering, it may also be viewed as a personal crime.

  • Property Crimes: Crimes against someone's property are known as property crimes. Crimes against property include forgery, fraud, theft, and robbery.

  • Inchoate Crimes: These offences are crimes done to carry out other crimes, says Inchoate. One of the most frequent categories of inchoate crimes is conspiracy, attempts, and bribery.

  • Statutory Crimes: Crimes against the government are classified as statutory offences. Statutory crimes include drunk driving, insider trading, rape, and drug trafficking.

bottom of page